Dense aggregates are materials used in construction work that have a high mass-to-volume ratio. This means that they are heavier than other materials of the same volume, and they are often used to fill containers or to create a solid foundation for structures. Bulk density, or unit weight, is the mass of the aggregate needed to fill one unit volume of the container. It helps convert quantities by weight to volume and indicates the gradation and shape of the aggregate.

Bulk density is also necessary for dosing the mixture by volume, as it measures the volume that the graded aggregate will occupy in the concrete, including the solid aggregate particles and the voids between them. The bulk density of an aggregate can be defined as the mass of the material in a given volume. It depends on how densely the aggregate is packed. Aggregates are classified to produce a low void content and maximum density when compacted. The density of the sand can change if it is in a dry or wet state, as well as in the loose and compacted state.

The bulk density or unit weight of an aggregate is the mass or weight of the aggregate that is required to fill a container of a specific unit volume. The other factors affecting bulk density are particle size & shape, aggregate classification, and moisture content. The Bulk Specific Gravity (BSG) of an aggregate is not directly related to its particular performance, although the BSG specification is often made to meet minimum density requirements. The bulk density of aggregates is determined by multiplying the relative density (specific gravity) of the aggregate by the density of water. The compacted bulk density can be determined by filling the container in three layers and tamping each layer with a 16 mm diameter rounded tip rod. Loose bulk density can be determined by filling the container with dry aggregates until it overflows from the container.

The relative density (specific gravity) of an aggregate is the ratio between its mass and the mass of an equal volume of water. Dense aggregates are essential for construction work as they provide a solid foundation for structures and help convert quantities by weight to volume. They also help determine gradation and shape of aggregates, as well as dosing mixtures by volume. Bulk density, particle size & shape, aggregate classification, moisture content, relative density (specific gravity), compacted bulk density, and loose bulk density are all factors that affect dense aggregates.

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