Concrete masonry is a popular choice for building various types of foundation walls, such as full basement walls, mezzanine walls, stem walls and piers. This material is suitable for applications below ground due to its strength, durability, economy and resistance to fire, insects and noise. A foundation wall is a wall that rests on the feet of the foundation and provides support for the weight of a house. It is essential to take the time to get the job done right since any problems with the foundation wall will ultimately lead to issues with the entire structure. The foundation wall is probably the most important part of the structure.
When it is not built correctly, cracks may appear and settling of the structure may occur. Cracks may be caused by filling the base before the concrete has reached the required strength or by not laying enough steel. Residential designers should keep in mind that concrete foundation walls typically have a thickness of 6, 8, or 10 inches (nominal). The typical compressive strength of concrete used in residential construction is 2,500 or 3,000 psi, although other strengths are available.
The typical yield strength of tensile reinforcement is 60,000 psi (Grade 60).Block foundations were common in houses built before the 1970s. Concrete blocks are capable of high compressive strength, meaning this style of base can support a lot of weight on its top. A traditional foundation method for supporting a structure in an area where soil freezes involves placing a base under the frost line and then adding walls at the top. The base should be wider than the wall to provide additional support at the base of the base.
A T-shaped base is laid and allowed to cure; secondly, the walls are built; and finally, concrete is poured between the walls. It is important to understand what a foundation wall is and how it works. These walls serve as the main support for a structure of your home and form the envelope of a usable basement. Waterproofing membranes are predominantly applied to the positive (outer) face of the foundation wall; however, there are negative side waterproofing systems that can be applied to the inside of the foundation wall and blind side waterproofing systems that can be pre-applied to a support wall of excavation resulting in a waterproofing system installed on the positive side. Depending on how much water passes through the upper grille, a drainage system may be required on the base wall surface. A monolithic slab base is created by pouring a single layer of concrete to form a slab and a base.
Spreaders can be removed as concrete is poured since it weighs enough to keep shapes separate. Regardless of which type of concrete foundation wall is selected, it is necessary to determine nominal and factorized loads that govern which type of wall (reinforced or non-reinforced) may be appropriate for a given application. When building masonry or concrete foundation walls, they must be at least 6 inches thick. As with footings, cover surfaces with wet sand, straw or burlap for at least one week. In some cases, masonry or concrete foundation walls incorporate nominal amounts of steel reinforcement to control cracking.
This section discusses reinforcement and presents a rational design approach for residential concrete and masonry foundation walls.